In Python, the exclusive or (XOR) operation is represented by the caret symbol **^**. The result of XORing two bits is only true when one of the two bits is true and the other is false. This article will teach you how to perform the XOR operation on a list of integers in Python.

## Using the reduce() function and the operator module

You can use the **reduce()** function from the **functools** module and the **xor()** function from the **operator** module to XOR a list of integers. Here’s how it’s done:

from functools import reduce from operator import xor numbers = [5, 3, 7, 2, 9] result = reduce(xor, numbers) print(result)

In the example above, we import the **reduce()** function and the **xor()** function. We then define a list of integers named **numbers** and apply the **reduce()** function to it, passing the **xor()** function as the first argument. This code will output **10** as the result of XORing all the integers in the list.

## Using a for loop

If you prefer not to use the **reduce()** function, you can achieve the same result by using a simple **for** loop:

numbers = [5, 3, 7, 2, 9] result = 0 for number in numbers: result ^= number print(result)

In this example, we initialize a variable named **result** with the value **0**. We then iterate over the list of integers named **numbers** using a **for** loop. In each iteration, we XOR the current value of **result** with the current integer in the list. The final result, **10**, is printed at the end.

## Conclusion

In this article, we demonstrated two methods to XOR a list of integers in Python: using the **reduce()** function from the **functools** module in combination with the **xor()** function from the **operator** module, and using a simple **for** loop. Both methods provide a straightforward way to perform the XOR operation on a list of integers in Python.